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Online copyright infringement patent infringement and design rights enforcement

Industry Infringement Research

This covered research generated or commissioned by an IP industry stakeholder group. In the case of copyright industries, this was normally a trade association or collection society. In some of the larger copyright industries, considerable volumes of research are created internally. Market research and/or consultancy firms were usually commissioned to produce most of the research. Typically, industry does not have the breadth of coverage, resources and/or training to go beyond the commissioning of market research consumer surveys. This research is usually a response to particular issues, generating representative small samples, but is mainly reliant on the interpretation of consumer attitudes and perceptions.

Government Infringement Research

This covers research generated or commissioned by government departments, or agencies such as the IPO, as well as quasi-non-governmental organisations such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and OECD. Much of the commissioned research involves either commercial research/consultancy firms or academics specialising in the field, mostly from a legal or economics background. Typically, this type of research is predisposed to the use of objective comprehensive public infringement and enforcement data, which have the perceived advantage of being open to scrutiny and complete in their coverage.

Academic Research

Although a considerable volume of research carried out by academics within the IPR field is commissioned and funded by industry or government, there is also a large body of research carried out by academics supported by their own resources or grants from research councils or charitable foundations. We have excluded from this category any academic research funded by any organisation perceived to have a vested interest in the outcome of the research findings.

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